Selected Bibliography

 

Publications marked with an asterisk (*) were indispensable to research of 19th-century faces and are highly recommended.

LETTERPRESS SPECIMENS EXAMINED

1842–1915+ United States Patent and Trademark Office: Approved applications for registration of original designs of printing fonts and related sub-classifications* (more than 1,000 submitted by US citizens and non-citizens).

  • 1728  William Caslon|Letter Founder in Chiswell Street (London): A Specimen.
  • 1785  William Caslon|Letter Founder in Chiswell Street (London): A Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1789  Bell & Stephenson (London): A Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1796  William Caslon|Letter Founder in Chiswell Street (London): A Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1796  S & C Stephenson, British Foundry (London): A Specimen of Printing Types and
  • 1798  William Caslon|Letter Founder in Chiswell Street (London): A Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1808  Fonderie et Imprimerie de J.G. Gillé (Paris): Recueil des Divers Caractères, Vignettes et Ornemens de la Fonderie et Imprimerie de J.G. Gillé.
  • 1812  Binny & Ronaldson (Philadelphia): Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1816  Edmund Fry|Letter Founder to the King and Prince Regent (London): Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1828  George Bruce (New York)⁴: Specimen of Printing Types and Ornaments.
  • 1827  P. Durouchail (Paris): Suite de la Novelle Collection des Épreuvres.
  • 1829  Franklin Letter-Foundry of A.W. Kinsley & Co. (Albany, NY): A Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1832  Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry¹ (Boston): Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1835  Fonderie de E. Tarbé|Successeur de Molé (Paris). Caractères Romains et Italiques, Lettres de Titres d’Affiches.
  • 1836  A. Latouche et M. Buffet|Graveurs et Fondeurs (Paris): Premier Spècimen des Carac­tères.
  • 1837  N.-F. Gromort (Paris): Spécimen des caractères d’affiches, vignettes et fleurons (Seconde partie).
  • 1837  Laurent et Deberny (Paris): Feuille des Lettres D’Affiches.
  • 1838  Désiré-Hippolite Duvivier (Ghent): Epreuve et catalogue des caractères de l’imprimerie moderne.
  • 1838  Wood & Sharwoods (London): Specimen Book of Types Cast at the Austin Foundry.
  • 1839  Fonderie Générale|E. Tarbé et Cie (Paris): Épreuves de Caractérs, Français et Étrangers.
  • 1840  Fundiçion de J.B. Clement (Valencia): Muestras de los Carácteres y Adornos.
  • 1841  Henry Calson|Letter-Founder to Her Majesty’s Most Honorable Board of Excise (London): Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1843-1844. Silvestre, J.B. (Paris): Alphabet Album|Collection de soixante feuilles d’Alphabets Histories et Fleuronnes.
  • 1845  V. & J. Figgins (London):  Specimen of Plain & Ornamental Types.
  • 1843  Fonderie en Caractéres de Thorey et Virey (Paris): Untitled.
  • 1846  Société Typographique Belge (Brussels): Spécimen des Caractères, Lettres de Fantaisie,
  • 1847  Schriftgiesserei Edourd Hænel (Berlin): Neue Polytypen der Schriftgiesserei und Gravir-Anstalt.*
  • 1852  Georg Reichard² (Heidelburg): Schriftproben der Buchdruckerei.
  • 1853  Fonderie Générale|Charles Laboulaye (Paris): Caractères Français et Étrangers.
  • 1854  Albert Falckenberg & Co. (Magdeburg): Proben der Schriftgessierei.
  • 1855c  L’Imprimerie Corbaz & Rouiller Fils² (Lausanne): Spécimen No. 20.
  • 1856  Boston Type Foundry (Boston): Supplementary Specimen Sheets.
  • 1856  Bruce’s New-York Type-Foundry¹·⁴ (New York): A Priced List of Printing Types and Materials.
  • 1857  Cincinnati Type Foundry¹·² (Cincinnati, OH): Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1857  Fonderie Générale|Adolphe René & Cie (Paris): Épreuves de Caractérs, Français et Étrangers.
  • 1860  Boston Type Foundry (Boston): Condensed Specimen Book.
  • 1861  R. Decker (Berlin): Proben von Buchdruck-Lettern aus der Schriftgiesserei.
  • 1862  Graveur et Fonderie de Charles Derriey (Paris): Spécimen Album.
  • 1865  G. Dubosc, Graveur (Paris): Caractéres en Bois pour l’Impression Typographique.
  • 1866  Farmer, Little & Co.|White’s New York Type Foundry¹·⁴ (New York): Late Specimens of Printing Types (Supplement No. 3).
  • 1867  Farmer, Little & Company|White’s New York Type Foundry¹·⁴ (New York): Specimen Book.
  • 1867  Évariste Mangin (Nantes): Specimen des Caractérs de l’Imprimerie du Commerce.
  • 1869  MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan (Philadelphia): Book of Specimens.
  • 1869  Bruce’s New-York Type-Foundry⁴ (New York): An Abridged Specimen of Printing Types.
  • 1870–1875 Bruce’s New-York Type-Foundry⁴ (New York): Semi-Annual Supplements to 1869 Specimens.
  • 1870  Cincinnati Type Foundry¹·² (Cincinnati, OH).: Specimen and Price List.
  • 1872  William Hamilton Page and Samuel Mowry (Greenville, CT): Wm. H. Page & Co. Specimen Book.
  • 1872  Frederick Ullmer² (London): Catalogue of Book, News, Ornamental and Jobbing Type.
  • 1873  United States Type Foundry of Jas. Conner’s Sons¹·³ (New York): Supplementary Specimens of Printing Types…
  • 1873  Reed & Fox (London): Selections from the Specimen Book of the Fann Street Foundry.
  • 1874  United States Type Foundry of Jas. Conner’s Sons¹·³ (New York): Typographic Messenger January Supplement.
  • 1874  Dominion Type-Founding Co.² (Montreal): Specimens of Plain and Fancy Printing Types.
  • 1875  Badoureau l’Imprimerie|Ponsot Successor (Paris): Spécimen des Principaux Caractères.
  • 1875  Frederick Ullmer² (London): Specimens of Book, News, Ornamental and Jobbing Type, Borders, Cheques, Brass Rule, etc.
  • 1879  Boston Type Foundry (Boston): Specimens from the Boston Type Foundry.
  • 1880  Boston Type Foundry (Boston): Original Faces Cast by the Boston Type Foundry.
  • 1881  Étienne Ducret (Paris): Alphabet Classique.
  • 1882  A.-H. Bécus (Paris): Spécimen des Caractères de Labeur de Imprimerie Typographique.
  • 1882  Berthier et Cie (Paris): Specimen des Caractères.
  • 1882  Cincinnati Type Foundry¹·² (Cincinnati, OH): Fifteenth Book of Specimens (Compact Edition).
  • 1883  Julius Klinkhardt (Leipzig): Gesamt-Probe der Schriftgiesserei.
  • 1884  Palmer & Rey¹·²·³ (San Francisco): New Specimen Book, Second Compact Edition.
  • 1885  MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan (Philadelphia): Eleventh Book of Specimens of Printing Types
  • 1885  Cleveland Type Foundery (Cleveland, OH): Catalogue and Price List of Type and Machinery…
  • 1885  Fonderie Turlot (Paris): Spécimen des Caractères Anciens.
  • 1886  J.G. Schelter & Giesecke (Leipzig): Muster Sammlung.
  • 1886  Benton, Waldo & Co. (Milwaukee/St. Paul): Benton’s Self-Spacing Type.
  • 1887  Haight & Dudley (Poughkeepsie, NY): Specimens of Printing.
  • 1887  Emil Houpied (Paris): Les Nouveautés Typographiques des Fonderies Nouvelles.
  • 1888  Cincinnati Type Foundry¹·² (Cincinnati, OH): Seventeenth Book of Specimens.
  • 1888  James Conner’s Sons United States Type Foundry¹·³ (New York): Abridged Specimens of Printing Types…
  • 1888  Schniedewend & Lee Co. (Chicago): Second Specimen Book and Price List of Type.
  • 1888  Ferd. Theinhardt Schriftgiesserei (Berlin): Musterbuch.
  • 1889  Allison & Smith|Franklin Type Foundry (Cincinnati, OH): Convenient Book of Specimens.
  • 1889  Farmer, Little & Co.¹·⁴ (New York): Selected Typefaces…
  • 1889?Fonderie A. Turlot (Paris): Caractères pour Affiches.
  • 1889  Hawks & Shattuck|Pacific States Type Foundry¹·²·⁴ (San Francisco): New Specimen Book and Price List of Types…
  • 1889  l’Impremerie de Edmond Monnoyer² (Le Mans): Spécimen des Caractères.
  • 1889  Marder, Luse & Co.|Chicago Type Foundry¹ (Chicago): Abridged Specimen Book of Printing Type.
  • 189?  H.W. Caslon & Co., Letter Founders (London): Illustrated Catalogue of Bookbinding Materials and Specimens…
  • 1890  Marder, Luse & Co.|Chicago Type Foundry¹ (Chicago): Price List and … Specimens of Printing Type.
  • 1891  MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan³ (Philadelphia): Compact Book of Specimens.
  • 1892  Central³ & Boston³ Typefoundries: Popular Designs for Artistic Printers…
  • 1892  G. Edward Osborne & Co.² (New Haven, CT): Price List of Type … for Sale by the Elm City Printers’ Warehouse.
  • 1892  MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan³ (Philadelphia): Specimens of Printing Types…
  • 1892  Palmer & Rey¹·²·³ (San Francisco): Fifth Revised Specimen Book and Price List of Printing Material.
  • 1893–1894 Barnhart Bros. and Spindler¹·⁴ (Chicago): Pony Specimen Book and Price List.
  • 1893  Cleveland Type Foundry³ (Cleveland, OH): Catalogue and Price List of Type and Material.
  • 1893  A.D. Farmer and Son¹·⁴ (New York): Specimens Including Book, Newspaper and Jobbing Type…
  • 1893  Marder, Luse & Co. Foundry|Chicago Type Foundry:³ Price List and Printers’ Purchasing Guide
  • 1894? Oskar Bonde Buchdruckerei² (Altenburg): Schriftproben.
  • 1894  J.S. Cushing & Co.² (Boston and Norwood, MA): Specimens|Book Types.
  • 1894  J.G. Schelter & Giesecke (Leipzig): Zweite Folge der Muster Sammlung.
  • 1895  MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan Co. (Philadelphia): Seventeenth Specimen Book|Printers’ Handy Book of Type Specimens…
  • 1895  Cleveland Type Foundry³ (Cleveland, OH): Catalogue and Book of Specimens of Type Faces.
  • 1895  Imprenta y Encuadernación Barcelona¹ (Barcelona): Muestrario de los Tipos y Viñetas.
  • 1896  American Type Founders’ Company (San Francisco): Pacific Coast Blue Book.
  • 1896  Barnhart Brothers & Spindler (Chicago): Barnhart’s Big Blue Book.
  • 1897  American Type Founders’ Company (New York): Specimens of Printing Types.
  • 1897  American Type Founders’ Company¹ (Buffalo, NY): Handy Specimen Book…
  • 1897  American Type Founders’ Company (Chicago): Specimens of Type, Borders and Ornaments…
  • 1897  Inland Type Foundry¹·⁴ (St. Louis): Specimen Book and Catalog…
  • 1898  American Type Founders Company (New York): Desk Book|Specimens of Type…
  • 1898  Petzendorfer, L. (Editor): Schriften Atlas Line Sammlung der Wichtigsten Schreib und Druckschriften aus Alter und Neuer Zeit nebst Initialen Monogrammen Wappen Landestarben und Heraldischen Motiven fur die Practischen Zwecke des Kunstgewerbes.* Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart.
  • 1899  Toronto Type Foundry Co., Ltd. (Toronto): The Latest Type Fashions.
  • 1900? Fonderie Générale|Beaudoire & Cie (Paris): Épreuves de Caractérs, Français et Étrangers.
  • 1900  Barnhart Brothers & Spindler (Chicago): Specimen Book of Type…
  • 1900  A.D. Farmer & Son Type Founding Co.¹·⁴ (New York): Typographic Specimens, Illustrated Catalog.
  • 1900  American Type Founders Company (Philadelphia): Desk book of type specimens, borders, ornaments
  • 1902  Inland Type Foundry¹·⁴ (St. Louis): Specimen Book and Catalog.
  • 1903? Petzendorfer, L. (Editor): Schrif­ten­atlas Neue Folge|Eine Sammlung von Alphabeten Initialen und Monogrammen Zusam­men­ges­tellt.* Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart. Reprinted as Treasury of Art Nouveau Alphabets, Decorative Initials, Monograms, Frames and Ornaments: Dover Publications, Inc. (Minneola, NY 1984).
  • 1903  H.C. Hansen, Type Founder¹ (Boston): Specimen Book of Type and Printing Material.
  • 1904  Richard Gans, Fundición Typográfica (Madrid): Edición iv Manual.
  • 1906  American Type Founders Company⁵ (Jersey City, NJ): American Line Type Book.
  • 1906  Deberny et Cie (Paris): Les Caractères d’Affiches.
  • 1906  Inland Type Foundry¹·⁴ (St. Louis): Pony Specimen Book.
  • 1906  Jordan & Sons Ltd.² (London): Specimens of Types, Borders, Ornaments, Seals, etc.
  • 1906  Keystone Type Foundry¹ (Philadelphia): Abridged Specimen Book.
  • 1907  DeVinne Press² (New York): Types of the DeVinne Press…
  • 1907  Barnhart Bros. & Spindler¹·⁴ (Chicago): Book of Type Specimens (No. 9).
  • 1907  Inland Type Foundry¹ (St. Louis): A Price List of Printers’ Supplies, Type, Rules and Acces­sories.
  • 1908  Stephenson, Blake & Co. (Sheffield): Specimens of Point Line Type: Borders, Ornaments, Brass Rules, etc. Canadian edition, Toronto.
  • 1909  H.C. Hansen Type Foundry (Boston). A Book of Types, Borders, Ornaments, Brass Rules, Printing Materials & the like for Printerdom.
  • 1912  American Type Founders Company⁵ (Jersey City, NJ): American Specimen Book of Type Styles.
  • 1914  Caslon, H.W.: Specimens of Types & Borders and Illustrated Catalogue of Printers’ Joinery and Materials.
  • 192_  La Fonderie Typographique Français⁶ (Paris): Album d’Alphabets.
  • 192_  Miller & Richard⁶ (Edinburgh, London): Printing Type Specimens.

__
¹These typefounders also represented wood type producers.
²These specimens were published by primarily/exclusively distributors or consumers of type rather than originators of type designs. Distributor catalogs were extremely useful when producers’ own specimen books for the same period were unavailable. Cincinnati TF originated several unpatented type designs and patented fonts of printers’ ornaments. Hawks & Shattuck and Palmer & Rey purchased designs­ from freelancers.
³These US firms were “charter members” of ATF in 1892. Branches retained their original company names until 1895.
⁴These US foundries joined ATF as late as 1922; Inland TF opened for business in 1894, two years after the ATF merger. As per the agreement, Barnhart Bros. & Spindler, acquired by ATF in 1911, continued independent operation until 1933.
⁵The ATF Jersey City headquarters building was occupied in 1903 [van Houten, Lohf]. The largest ATF specimen book was issued in 1912.
⁶These international 1920s catalogs offered still-popular 19th-century faces.

POST-LETTERPRESS SPECIMENS EXAMINED
  • 1964  Lambert, F.: Letter Forms in London. Peter Owen, Ltd. (London). Revised/reprinted­ as Menton, T. (Editor): Letterforms|110 Complete Alphabets: Dover Publications, Inc. (New York 1972).
  • 1970 Yablon, R.: Typography & Design Devices. Art Direction Book Co., Inc. (Glenbrook, CT)
  • 1972  Visual Graphics Corporation (New York): Photo-Typositor Typeface Directory.
  • 1974  Graphic Products Corporation (Rolling Meadows, IL): Formatt Catlog No. 5.
  • 1974  Kennedy, P.: Modern Display Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts from the Franklin Photo­letter­ing Catalogue. Dover Publications, Inc. (Minneola, NY).
  • 1975? Mecanorma No. 7 [Danish edition] (Le Perray-en-Yvelines).
  • 1977  Letraset USA Inc. (Paramus, NJ).
  • 1979  Tachtype, Grafade Inc. (New York).
  • 1980  Letraset USA Inc. (Paramus, NJ).
  • 1980  Zipatone Inc. (Hillside, IL).
  • 1981  Chartpak Graphic Products (Leeds, MA).
  • 1981  Graphic Products Corporation (Rolling Meadows, IL): Formatt Catalog No. 7.
  • 1984  Chartpak (Leeds, MA).
  • 1986  Graphic Products Corporation (Rolling Meadows, IL): Formatt Catalog No. 8.
  • 1991  Chartpak/Pickett (Leeds, MA).
  • 1992  Solo, D.X.: The Solotype Catalog of 4,417 Display Typefaces.* Dover Publications, Inc. (Minneola, NY). N.B.: Cited as Solotype throughout THP publications.
  • 1994  Esselte Letraset: The World of Letraset Products. Letraset USA (Paramus, NJ).
  • 1995  Precision Type Inc.: Precision Type Font Reference Guide (Commack, NY).
  • 1976–1998 Solo, D.X. [Editor]: Titles and dates as follows in chronological order. Dover Publications, Inc. (Min­ne­ola, NY):

Victorian Display Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1976; Art Nouveau Display Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1976; Brushstroke and Freestyle Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1977; Special Effects and Topical Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1978; Sans Serif Display Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1979; 3-D and Shaded Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1982; Classic Roman Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1983; Gothic and Old English Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1984; Condensed Alpbabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1986; Script and Cursive Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1987; Outline Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1988; Bold Script Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1989; Circus Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1989; Decorative Display Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1990; Rustic and Rough-Hewn Alpabets|100 Complete Fonts 1991; Elegant Display Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1992; Extended Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts* 1992; 100 Decorative Condensed Alphabets* 1993; Extra-Bold Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1993; Pattern Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1994; 100 Ornamental Alphabets 1995; Showcard Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1996; Swash Letter Alphabets|100 Complete Fonts 1996; 100 Calligraphic Alphabets 1997; Celtic and Medieval Alphabets|53 Complete Fonts 1998.

PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS AND PAPERS
  • The American Bookmaker|The American Printer* (1886-1903): Volumes 02-37, passim. Howard Lockwood, New York.
  • Annales de la Typographie Français et Étrangè (1838-1840): Volumes 01-02, passim. Bureau du Journal, Paris.
  • Annuaire de l’Imprimerie (1853-1854). Volumes not numbered, passim. Dépôt à la Librairie Universelle de Gabriel, Paris.
  • Archiv für Buchdruckerkunst und verwandte Geschäftszwiege|Archiv für Buchgewerbe* (1864-1902): Volumes 02-39, passim. Alex­an­der Waldow, Leip­zig.
  • The British Printer* (1888-1895): Volumes 01-08, passim. Gresham Press, London.
  • Bulletin de l’Imprimerie (1883-1884): Volumes 08-10, passim. Publisher not identified, Paris.
  • Bulletin Typographique (1842-1844). Volumes not numbered, passim. J. Belin Leprieur Fils, Paris.
  • Chronique de l’Impremerie|Gazette Cosmopolite de la Typographie et de la Lithographie (1880-1881): Volumes 01-02, passim. Publisher not identified, Paris.
  • Hailing’s Circular* (1877-1889): Volumes 1-2, passim. Oxford Printing Works, Cheltenham.
  • Het Drukkers Jaarboek voor 1907: Ipenbuur & van Seldam, Amsterdam.
  • The Inland Printer* (1885-1910): Volumes 03-45, passim. The Inland Printer Company, Chicago. N.B.: When possible, bound volume numbers, page numbers, month and year of original publication are referenced. Otherwise, information per Annenberg’s A Typographical Journey Through The Inland Printer 1883-1900 or Loy’s Designers and Engravers of Type per Johnston and Saxe are substituted.
  • The Typographical Journal|Official Paper of the International Typographical Union of North America, 1896–1908, passim.
  • The Practical Printer (1908-1911): Volumes 10-13, passim. Inland Type Foundry, St. Louis.
  • The Printer and Bookmaker (1897-1900): Volumes 24-29, passim. J. Clyde Oswald, New York.
  • The Printing Art (1905-1915): Volumes 2-25, passim. The University Press, Cambridge
  • The Printers’ International Specimen Exchange (1880-1881): Volumes 01-02, passim. The Paper and Printing Trades Journal, London.
  • The Printers’ Journal and Typographical Magazine (1866-1867): Volumes 01-02, passim. Plackett & Moody, London.
  • The Typefounder (1901-1906): Volumes 15-17, passim. Barnhart Brothers & Spindler, Chicago.
  • Typo|A Monthly Newspaper and Literary Review* (1887-1897): Volumes 1-11. R. Coupland Harding, Wellington (New Zealand). N.B.: Cited as Typo NZ throughout THP publications.
    ____
  • Anonymous (1987): Publisher’s Note, Borders, Frames and Decorative Motifs from the 1862 Derriey Typographic Catalog (specimens cited elsewhere). Dover Publications, Inc. (Mineola, NY).
  • Bauer, Friedrich (Offenbach 1929); Reichardt, Hans (Frankfurt 2011): Chronik der Schriftgießereien in Deutschland und den deutschsprachigen Nachbarländern.* Courtesy of the Klingspor Museum.
  • Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer.* In The Inland Printer 37-40:July 1906–January 1908.
  • Bullen, H.L. (1934): Duplicates of the Type Specimen Books, Etc., United States and Foreign, for Sale by the Typographic Library and Museum of the American Type Founders Company. Self-Published manuscript, American Type Founders’ Company (Jersey City, NJ). Reprinted by Yale, R.B. [Editor], Frontier Publishing Co. (San Diego 1972).
  • Bruce, D. Jr. (1858-67): History of Typefounding in the United States. In The Printer (New York). Compiled and annotated by The Typophiles (New York 1981).
  • Bruce, G. Esq. (1851): Type Founding in the United States. In Annual Report, Commissioner of Patents. United States Patent Office (Washington).
  • Cahn, J.M. (1984): Publisher’s Note, Treasury of Art Nouveau Alphabets, Decorative Initials, Monograms, Frames and Ornaments [specimens cited elsewhere]. Dover Publications, Inc. (Minneola, NY).
  • Eckman, J. (1960): The Inland Type Foundry, 1894-1911. In Printing and Graphic Arts 8:31-52.
  • Eckman, J. (1961): Note, The Collectanea Typographica of Henry Lewis Bullen [1857–1938]. In The Inland Printer. Doomsday Press (Rochester, MN).
  • Eckman, J. (1981): Preface, History of Typefounding in the United States. The Typophiles, New York.
  • Johnston, A.M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editors] (2009): Introduction and Commentary, William E. |Nineteenth-Century American Design­ers and Engravers of Type.* Oak Knoll Books (New Castle, DE).
  • Lohf, K.A. (1986): American Type Founders Company. In Journal of Library History 21:764-767.
  • Loy, W.E. (August–October 1896). Letters of William E. Loy, California Historical Society (San Francisco). Reproduced in Johnston, A.M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editors] (2009): William E. Loy|Nineteenth-Century American Designers and Engravers of Type, pages 10-19. Oak Knoll Books, New Castle, DE.
  • Loy, W.E. (1898–1900): Designers and Engravers of Type.* In The Inland Printer 22-25: passim.
  • Loy, W.E. (1900–1905): Typefounders and Typefounding In America.* In The Inland Printer 25-36: passim.
  • American Typefounders’ Company (1896): One Hundred Years, 1796–1896|MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan. In The Inland Printer 17:82–85, April 1896.
  • Moseley, J.; Howes, J.; Roche, N. (1998). Founder’s London A-Z. The European Friends of the St. Bride’s Printing Library, London.
  • Pankow, D. (1993): Recast in an American Image|The Work of Hermann (sic) Ihlenburg, Type Designer.* In The Ampersand 13:10-18.
  • Pankow, D. (1995): Foreword, Precision Type Font Reference Guide (5.0). Precision Type Inc. (Commack, NY).
  • Peat, D.W.; Hopkins, R.L (1992-2001): Introductions to reprints of the following specimens cited elsewhere: Boston TF 1856; Bruce TF 1856, Cincinnati TF 1857, MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan 1869, Conner TF 1888. Pioneer Press (Terra Alta, WV).
  • Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:4–19, 1980.
  • Saxe, S.O. [Editor] (1989): Introduction to specimens cited elsewhere, Old-Time Advertising Cuts and Typography|184 Plates from the Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry Catalog (1832). Dover Publications, Inc. (Minneola, NY).
  • Saxe, S.O. (1983): The Romance of Wood Type. In Fine Print on Type, 62–67. Bedford Arts (San Francisco 1989).
  • Solo, D.X. (1974): An Argument in Opposition to Copyright Protection of Printing Types.*¹ Expert testimony presented to the United States Copyright Office, Library of Congress. Self-published illustrated manuscript (Oakland, CA).
  • Tribby, D.M. (2003): Catalogs of the American Typefounders’ Company and Barnhart Brothers & Spindler, 1897-1971.* American Amateur Press Association (http://aapainfo.org/drupal/node/75). N.B.: Cited as Tribby throughout THP publications.
  • Van Houten, C. (2001): A Brief History of the American Type Founders. In The Constant Reader 2:No. 52 (Jersey City, NJ).
  • Werner, N.J. (1908): A Calendarium Typographicum|A Record of More or Less Notable Events Affecting Typography and Affiliated Arts, Presented In the Order of the Months and Days on Which They Occurred. In The Inland Printer, January–December 1908.

__

¹Digitization (approved by Mr. Solo) to be published at www.typeheritage.com pending OCR conversion and facsimile layout.

MONOGRAPHS
  • Annenberg, M. [Editor] (1977): A Typographic Journey Through The Inland Printer 1883–1900.* Maran Press, Baltimore.
  • Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs.*  Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. N.B.: Cited as Annenberg throughout.
  • Brown, F.C. (1907): Letters and Lettering (Fifth Edition). Bates and Guild Company, Boston.
  • Consuegra, D. (2004): American Type Design and Designers. Allworth Press, New York.
  • Crane, W. (1896): The Decorative Illustration of Books. London(?), G. Bell & Sons. Reprinted by Studio Editions Ltd. (London 1994).
  • Copley, F.S. (1870): A Set of Alphabets|Of all the various Hands in Modern Use. George E. Woodward, New York. Reprinted as A Book of Alphabets with Plain, Ornamental, Ancient and Mediæval Styles by Algrove Publishing, Ottawa.
  • Copley, F.S. (1895): The Book of Ornamental Alphabets, Ancient and Mediæval. Crosby Lockwood and Son, London. Reprinted as A Book of Alphabets with Plain, Ornamental, Ancient and Mediæval Styles by Algrove Publishing, Ottawa.
  • Day, L.F. (1910): Alphabets Old & New (Third Edition). B.T. Batsford, London. Reprinted by Studio Editions Ltd. (London 1995).
  • DeVinne, T.L. (1899-1902): The Practice Of Typography|A Treatise on the Processes of Type-making, the Point System, the Names, Sizes, Styles and Prices of Plain Printing Types (Second Edition).* The Century Co., New York.
  • Delamotte, F.G. (1914): The Book of Ornamental Alphabets (16th Edition). Crosby Lockwood and Son, London.
  • Dupont, P. (1849): Essais Practique d’Imprimerie. Impremerie Paul Dupont, Paris.
  • Eason, R.; Rookledge, S.; Baines, P.; Rookledge, G. (1991): Rookledge’s International Handbook of Type Designers|A Biographical Directory. Sarema Press Ltd., London.
  • Faulmann, K. (1882): Illustrirte Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst. A. Hartlebens Verlag, Leipzig.
  • Friedl, F.; Ott, N.; Stein, B. (1998): Typogra­phy|An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Throughout History. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc., New York.
  • Grafton, C.B. [Editor] (1977): Historic Alphabets and Initials|Woodcut and Ornamental. Dover Publications, Inc., Min­ne­ola, NY.
  • Gray, N. (1938): XIXth Century Ornamented Types and Title Pages.* Faber and Faber Limited, London. N.B.: Cited as Gray throughout THP publications.
  • Gress, E.G. (1917): The Art and Practice of Typography|A Manual of American Printing (Second Edition); Typography in the 19th Century, pages 27-35. Oswald Publishing Company, New York.
  • Harpel, Oscar H. (1870): Harpel’s Typograph or Book of Specimens. Oscar H. Harpel|Typographic Designer and Printer, Cincinnati.
  • Harris, E.M. (1983): The Fat and the Lean|American Wood Type in the 19th Century. Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History, Washington.
  • Headley, G. (2005): The Encyclopedia of Fonts. Cassel Illustrated, London.
  • Heller, S.; Fili, L. (1999): Typology|Type Design from the Victorian Era to the Digital Age. Chronicle Books, San Francisco.
  • Jaspert, W.P.; Berry, W.T; Johnson, A.F. (2001): The Encyclopedia of Type Faces (Second, Revised Edition). Cassel & Co., London.
  • Johnston, A.M. (2000): Alphabets to Order|The Literature of Nineteenth-Century Type­founders’ Specimens. Oak Knoll Press [New Castle, DE] and The British Library [London].
  • Johnston, A.M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editors] (2009): William E. Loy|Nineteenth-Century American Designers and Engravers of Type.* Oak Knoll Books, New Castle, DE. N.B.: Cited as Johnston & Saxe throughout THP publications.
  • Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types.* Litton Educational Pub­lishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977). N.B.: Cited as Kelly throughout THP publications.
  • Lieberman, J.B. Ph.D. (1967): Types of Typefaces and How to Recognize Them.* Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., New York. N.B.: Cited as Lieberman throughout THP publications.
  • Lehner, E. (1952): Alphabets and Ornaments. Dover Publications, Inc., Minneola, NY.
  • McGrew, M. (1993): American Metal Types of the Twentieth Century (Second, Revised Edition).* Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. N.B.: Cited as McGrew throughout.
  • McMurtrie, D.C. (1926): Alphabets|A Manual of Letter Design, with Complete Alphabets of Varied Styles of Lettering. Bridg­man Publishers, Pelham, NY.
  • Meggs, P.B. (1992): A History of Graphic Design (Second Edition). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
  • Millington, R. (2002): Stephenson Blake|The Last of the Old English Typefounders.* Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  • Mullen, R.A. (2005): Recasting A Craft|St. Louis Typefounders Respond to Industrialization.* Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nesbitt, A. [Editor] (1959): Decorative Alphabets and Initials. Dover Publications, Inc., Minneola, NY.
  • Peterson, W.S. (1991) The Kelmscott Press|A History of William Morris’s Typographical Adventure.* University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Reed, T.B. (1887): A History of the Old English Letter Foundries|With Notes, Historical and Biographical, on the Rise and Progress of English Typography. Elliot Stock, London.
  • Schmidt, C. (1999): Typographie Art Nouveau. L’Aven­turine|Media Serges/Les Éditions du Carrousel, Paris.
  • Thomas, I. (1970): The History of Printing in America|With a Biography of Printers & an Account of Newspapers (1810/1874). Weathervane Books, New York.
  • Updike, D.B. (1937): Printing Types|Their History, Forms and Use (Second Edition). Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
  • Wehle, J.H. (1880): Die Reclame|Ihre Theorie und Praxis. A. Hartleben, city not identified.
GENERAL REFERENCE
  • Anonymous [Editor] (1886): Farley’s Reference-Directory of the Booksellers, Printers and Stationers in the United States and Canada. A.C. Farley & Co. (Philadelphia).
  • Conard, H.L. [Editor] (1901): Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri|A Compendium of History and Biography for Ready Reference. The Southern History Company, city not identified.
  • Leonard, J.W. (1899-1900): Who’s Who in America|A Biographical Dictionary of Living Men and Women in the United States. A.N. Marquis & Company, Chicago.
  • Pasko, W.W. (1894): American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking|A History of These Arts in Europe and America, with Definitions of Technical Terms and Biographical Sketches.* Howard Lockwood & Co., New York.
  • Ringwalt, L. (1871): American Encyclopedia of Printing.* J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia.