Glossary

 

  • advertising agencies

    Unlike today’s counterparts, early ad agents contributed no creative input. Their primary service was merely to purchase space in publications (primarily newspapers) for resale at a profit. By the 1880s, their practice of paying for ad space with cheaply produced, inferior type cast from pirated designs ignited vicious, devastating price wars with and among legitimate typefounders, who despised them.
  • advertising agency

    Unlike today’s counterparts, early ad agents contributed no creative input. Their primary service was merely to purchase space in publications (primarily newspapers) for resale at a profit. By the 1880s, their practice of paying for ad space with cheaply produced, inferior type cast from pirated designs ignited vicious, devastating price wars with and among legitimate typefounders, who despised them.
  • American Printer

    A monthly journal for the printing industry published by J. Clyde Oswald and descendants (New York). Previous titles: The American Bookmaker 1885–1897; Printer and Bookmaker 1897–1899. Acquired in 1958 by Maclean-Hunter Publishing Corp., which had acquired The Inland Printer in 1945. In 1982, the combined periodicals were entitled The American Printer.
  • Annenberg

    Maurice Annenberg [1907–1979]. Author: Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs (Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE 1994); editor: A Typographic Journey Through the Inland Printer 1883–1900 (Maran Press, Baltimore 1977).
  • ATF

    American Type Founders’ Company, 1892–1993.
  • Barnhart

    Barnhart Brothers & Spindler [BBS](Chicago, 1868–1929). Started business as an advertising agency that exchanged type for space in newspapers. Hired C.E. Heyer in 1878; he designed at least 50% of 100+ original typefaces introduced during its existence. Sold to American Type Founders’ Company in 1911; last catalog, 1925; continued independently until 1929, when the machinery was shipped to ATF headquarters; final close of operations, 1933.
  • BBS

    Barnhart Brothers & Spindler [BBS](Chicago, 1868–1929). Started business as an advertising agency that exchanged type for space in newspapers. Hired C.E. Heyer in 1878; he designed at least 50% of 100+ original typefaces introduced during its existence. Sold to American Type Founders’ Company in 1911; last catalog, 1925; continued independently until 1929, when the machinery was shipped to ATF headquarters; final close of operations, 1933.
  • black and white

    True "black and white" images are perfect examples of binomial files, where 1="something" (black by default) and 0="nothing" (transparent). One color may be applied to any such image (regardless of file format) by professional print-layout applications while native transparency is retained.
  • Boston TF

    Boston Type Foundry. Established in 1817 as a branch of (Elihu) White's Type Foundry (New York), independent as of 1819. Boston TF 1819–1823; Boston Type & Stereotype Co. 1823–1849; Boston Type Foundry 1849–1892. Purchased by Central TF in 1888, sold to ATF in 1892, closed in 1895.
  • Brooklyn

    One of five boroughs of New York, also known as Kings.
  • Bruce

    Bruce’s New-York Type-Foundry [1818] and subsequent names after retirement/death of brothers George and David Bruce, their descendants and successors until joining ATF in 1901.
  • BTF

    Boston Type Foundry. Established in 1817 as a branch of (Elihu) White's Type Foundry (New York), independent as of 1819. Boston TF 1819–1823; Boston Type & Stereotype Co. 1823–1849; Boston Type Foundry 1849–1892. Purchased by Central TF in 1888, sold to ATF in 1892, closed in 1895.  
  • Bullen

    Henry Lewis Bullen [1857–1938]. Author [pen-name Quadrat], Discursions of a Retired Printer (The Inland Printer, 1906-1908). Australian native best remembered as ATF Historian/Librarian, 1908–1934/1936 (biographers disagree). __ George Bullen. Nicolette Gray [121] records a London Type Foundry established in 1840 by him. She notes catalogs dated c1865 (Specimen of Printing Types from the Foundry of G. Bullen|2 Judd Street, Brunswick Square) and c1876 (Specimen of Printing Types for Book, Newspaper and General Work, same address). It still existed when her book was published (1938).
  • Caslon

    The Caslon letterfoundy dynasty of London, 1720–1937. Established by William Caslon I; acquired by Stephenson, Blake and Co., Ltd. William Caslon III launched a separate enterprise in 1792; Stephenson Blake purchased it in 1819.
  • Central

    Central Type Foundry. Established as the St. Louis branch of Boston TF sometime between 1870 and 1872 (historians disagree) by James A. St. John, former BTF Agent. In 1874, St. John partnered with BTF Superintendent Carl Schraubstadter Sr. to purchase it. Central TF was so successful that in 1888, they purchased Boston TF. When ATF was incorporated in February 1892, Boston and Central TFs were the only ones purchased for 100% cash; all others accepted shares as part of the agreement.
  • Chicago Type Foundry

    Marder, Luse & Co.|The Chicago Type Foundry. Established in 1855 as a branch of the White TF (New York). When the White TF was acquired by Farmer, Little & Co. in 1861, the branch was sold to John Marder. Marder and Arthur T.H. Brower of the Union TF (Chicago) proposed the ATF merger and were officers of the corporation chartered in February 1892.
  • Compositor

    A professional typesetter who designed letterpress layouts with alphanumeric and ornament fonts, manually or with automated equipment (Linotype, Monotype, etc.)
  • Compositors

    Professional typesetters who designed letterpress layouts with alphanumeric and ornament fonts, manually or with automated equipment (Linotype, Monotype, etc.)
  • Connecticut

    Connecticut [CT]. Briefly settled by Dutch fur traders during the early 1600s, Connecticut was later an English colony in North America and one of the original 13 US States. It is located within convenient "commuting distance" of the Borough of Manhattan, City of New York. Bisected by the Connecticut River, its name derives from the Native American Algonquin word meaning "long tidal river." During the 19th century, major wood-type producers there dealt with typefounders and other distributors in New York: Edwin Allen (distributed by printer George F. Nesbitt), James G. Cooley (acquired Allen's business in 1852), brothers Horatio and Jeremiah C. Hill (former Allen employees) and William H. Page (employed by Cooley in 1855 until he acquired the Hills' business in 1856).
  • Conner

    The United States TF (New York), 1829–1892; ATF/New York thereafter. Known by various names spanning 3 generations: James Conner [1798–1861], his sons and grandsons.
  • CT

    Connecticut [CT]. Briefly settled by Dutch fur traders during the early 1600s, Connecticut was later an English colony in North America and one of the original 13 US States. It is located within convenient "commuting distance" of the Borough of Manhattan, City of New York. Bisected by the Connecticut River, its name derives from the Native American Algonquin word meaning "long tidal river." During the 19th century, major wood-type producers there dealt with typefounders and other distributors in New York: Edwin Allen (distributed by printer George F. Nesbitt), James G. Cooley (acquired Allen's business in 1852), brothers Horatio and Jeremiah C. Hill (former Allen employees) and William H. Page (employed by Cooley in 1855 until he acquired the Hills' business in 1856).
  • Cumming

    John F. Cumming [1852–1940], US-born type cutter and designer of five faces documented by William E. Loy or USPTO records.
  • De Vinne

    Theodore Lowe De Vinne [1828-1914]. US publisher esteemed as the most knowledgeable type historian of his time. His opinions on all typographical issues were generally accepted without question. A typeface named in his honor was designed by Gustave F. Schroeder in 1890; he patented it in 1893. Rights were assigned to V.J.A. Rey of Palmer & Rey|ATF San Francisco.
  • Dickinson

    Dickinson Type Foundery (sic). Established by Samuel Nelson Dickinson in 1839; |Phelps, Dalton & Co. c1842-1892; Boston Branch, American Type Founders’ Company thereafter.
  • DTF

    Dickinson Type Foundery (sic). Established by Samuel Nelson Dickinson in 1839; Phelps, Dalton & Co. c1848-1892; Boston Branch, American Type Founders’ Company thereafter.
  • DXS

    Dan X. Solo [1928–2012], fondly called DXS. Beginning in 1942, he collected worldwide some 6,000 letterpress fonts and specimens. For the next five decades, he curated and converted about 5,000 of them to film for his photo-lettering service. Because of his extremely influential Dover publications, countless revival typefaces are known today by the tradenames he assigned to them.
  • EDD

    Easy Digital Downloads, a system of Wordpress plugin templates designed exclusively for on-line sale of software. It is actively installed by 40,000+ websites and highly respected for excellent support. It is designed by a team of expert volunteers paid by donations and/or affordable fees for related “pro” extensions that perform optional tasks. There is no doubt that EDD will be actively maintained and improved for many years.
  • EPS

    Encapsulated PostScript, an image file format that supports both raster and vector elements. It is intended for print-oriented design professionals. The result is not visible when placed in a non-PostScript application (for example, MS Office) unless a header (preview image) is generated in the development process, and only the header is printable by a non-PostScript device. Pro versions of PDF software serve as a "virtual PostScript printer," parse (interpret) the original EPS file mapped to the header and output it correctly.
  • export

    In most cases, export of a typeface was a legal commercial transaction between the TF introducing the design and the TF that imported it. Because sizing varied from county to country even after the Pica/Point system was adopted in the US (1886) and GB (soon after), the systems observed by continental European TFs differed (and still do!). For this reason, it was customary to export matrices, which could be sized according to prevailing systems of the importing country during the mold-making production stage. Especially when the tradename remained consistent, it is most likely that the acquisition was a legal import rather than a freehand or electrotype copy.
  • Farmer

    New York, 1804–1909 White's Type Foundry (Elihu White and son Charles), 1804–1862
    • Chicago branch, 1855–1861. Sold to John Marder (Marder, Luse & Co.); joined ATF in 1892.
    • Cincinnati branch, 1817–1830. Continued independently as Cincinnati TF; joined ATF in 1892.
    • Boston branch, 1817–1819. Boston TF thereafter; joined ATF in 1892.
    Farmer, Little & Co. (Aaron D. Farmer and son William W., Andrew Little, John Bentley), 1862–1892.
    • Chicago branch, ≤1883–1907(?).
    A.D. Farmer Type Founding Company, 1892–1909. Plant sold to ATF in 1909.
  • Gray

    Nicolette Gray. Author, XIXth Century Ornamented Types and Title Pages (1938). N.B.: By the publication date of a 1976 revised edition co-authored by Ray Nash, Ms. Gray had changed the spelling of her given name to Nicolete.
  • Hailing

    Thomas Hailing [b1830], Oxford Printing Works (Cheltenham, England). Prominent printer, publisher of Hailing’s Circular [1877-1889], outspoken champion of US type design innovation and TF management. According to Pasko (American Dictionary of Printing, 1894), his was the first establishment in England to use fonts imported from the US. Hailing’s Circular was the first English-language periodical of its kind: it preceded The Inland Printer by six years; The British Printer, by eleven years.
  • Herriet

    Julius Herriet Sr. [b Brunswisk, Germany 1818]. Forty-two design patents/attributions: MacKellar Smiths & Jordan, Conner TF, Bruce TF, self-employed?). His son, Julius Herriet Jr. [b  New York, 1861] (employed by father 18??–18?? and 18??–1886, Farmer TF, Boston TF 1886–c1891, Keystone TF) self-employed thereafter.
  • Heyer

    Carl Emil/Charles E. Heyer [1841–1897]. Prolific German-born US type designer/cutter. Boston TF 1867–1877 (21 faces), Barnhart Brothers & Spindler 1878–1897 (52 alpha-numeric faces plus 10 ornamentals).
  • HTF

    H.C. Hansen Type Foundry [Boston, 1872–c1922]. Established by H.C. Hansen, a Norweigan immigrant and former DTF mechanical engineer, soon after the devastating Boston Fire of November 1872, which destroyed downtown Boston including all existing type foundries.
  • Ihlenburg

    Herman Ilenburg/Ihlenburg [Berlin 1843–Philadelphia 1905]. The most prolific 19th-century US type designer/cutter. MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan (1866–1905), nearly 150 documented alphanumeric or ornamental fonts; George Bruce's Son & Co. (1872–1885), 17 patented designs. Surname spelling changed from Ilenburg to Ihlenburg in 1874, concurrent with US citizenship.
  • IPO

    Initial Public Offering for sale of shares by a stock exchange.
  • JFC

    John F. Cumming [1852–1940], US-born type cutter and designer of five faces documented by William E. Loy or USPTO records.
  • L. Johnson

    Philadelphia [1796–1892]. Binny & Ronaldson 1796–1833; Johnson & Smith 1833–1843; L. Johnson & Co. 1843–1860; MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan 1860–1892; Philadelphia Branch, American Type Founders' Company thereafter. Following the death of Lawrence Johnson in 1860, the firm name "L. Johnson & Co." continued until MSJ incorporation in 1867. Even after the ATF merger, it was frequently called "The Johnson Type Foundry" by the trade.
  • Loy

    William E. Loy [1841-1906], 19th-century US type historian and journalist. Author, Designers and Engravers of Type (The Inland Printer, 1898–1900) and Typefounders and Typefounding In America (The Inland Printer, 1900–1905).
  • MacKellar

    Philadelphia [1796–1892]. Binny & Ronaldson 1796–1833; Johnson & Smith 1833–1843; L. Johnson & Co. 1843–1860; MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan 1860–1892; Philadelphia Branch, American Type Founders' Company thereafter. Following the death of Lawrence Johnson in 1860, the firm name "L. Johnson & Co." continued until MSJ incorporation in 1867. Even after the ATF merger, it was frequently called "The Johnson Type Foundry" by the trade.
  • Marder Luse

    Marder, Luse & Co.|The Chicago Type Foundry. Established in 1855 as a branch of the White TF (New York). When the White TF was acquired by Farmer, Little & Co. (New York) in 1861, it was sold to John Marder. Some 30 years later, Marder and Arthur T.H. Brower (Union TF, Chicago) proposed unification of US TFs to MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan (Philadelphia). MSJ's endorsement convinced 20 other TFs to unify, thus ending devastating price wars as well as the economic hardship of producing universally interchangeable fonts. Marder and Brower became key officers of the American Typefounders' Company chartered in February 1892.
  • matrices

    Matrices (plural of matrix), also called strikes. The second step of metal type manufacture: the "master" struck from a punch to produce a mold for casting. Matrices were ideal for inter-foundry exchange within the US and abroad because they were independent of the final measurement system, which was determined by the mold.
  • Matrix

    Matrices (plural of matrix), also called strikes. The second step of metal type manufacture: the "master" struck from a punch to produce a mold for casting. Matrices were ideal for inter-foundry exchange within the US and abroad because they were independent of the final measurement system, which was determined by the mold.
  • McGrew

    Mac McGrew [1912–2007]. Author, American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century (1986, 1993).
  • ML

    Marder, Luse & Co.|The Chicago Type Foundry. Established in 1855 as a branch of the White TF (New York). When the White TF was acquired by Farmer, Little & Co. in 1861, the branch was sold to John Marder. Marder and Arthur T.H. Brower of the Union TF (Chicago) proposed the ATF merger and were officers of the corporation chartered in February 1892.
  • MSJ

    Philadelphia [1796–1892]. Binny & Ronaldson 1796–1833; Johnson & Smith 1833–1843; L. Johnson & Co. 1843–1860; MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan 1860–1892; Philadelphia Branch, American Type Founders' Company thereafter. Following the death of Lawrence Johnson in 1860, the firm name "L. Johnson & Co." continued until MSJ incorporation in 1867. Even after the ATF merger, it was frequently called "The Johnson Type Foundry" by the trade.
  • Mullen

    Robert A. Mullen. Author, Recasting A Craft|St. Louis Typefounders Respond to Industrialization. Southern Illinois University Press, 2005
  • Nelson

    Robert Wickham Nelson [1851–1926]. After an unpaid orientation period on the Board of Directors, Nelson was elected General Manager of American Type Founders' Company at the annual stockholders' meeting in October 1894. In 1901, he was elected President and continued in these positions until his sudden death after a routine day at work. Bullen credits him with rescuing ATF from early financial distress, uniting rival branches as corporate "team members" and adroitly handling competition with ATF non-members.
  • Page

    William Hamilton Page [1829–1906], extraordinarily innovative wood type designer and producer.
  • Pankow

    David Pankow. Curator, Cary Graphic Arts Collection/Rochester Institute of Technology (1979–2012), which holds The Hermann Ihlenburg Papers (contributed to ATF by surviving family members). Author of numerous monographs and periodical articles on topics related to letterpress printing.
  • Pasko

    W.W. Pasko, author of American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking|A History of These Arts in Europe and America, with Definitions of Technical Terms and Biographical Sketches. Published by Howard Lockwood & Co. (New York, 1894).
  • PDF

    Portable Document Format, a PostScript [PS]-based application developed by Adobe in c1993. PostScript is a platform-independent simple text file instructing PS output devices. Since PDF is a software PS output device, it instantly became the "poor-man's PS printer" at a time when the only alternative was the [super-expensive!] Apple LaserWriter available only to "deep-pocket" Mac-based publishers. By embedding and parsing fonts and all image formats including Encapsulated PostScript, it extended viewing and printing of any document produced by any application on any platform to all.
  • Phillips

    Frederic Nelson Phillips [1884-1947]. Printer and type collector/curator. Editor, Phillips' Old Fashioned Type Book (252pp). Frederic Nelson Phillips, Inc., New York 1945.
  • Phinney

    Joseph Warren Phinney [1845-1934]. Principal executive, Dickinson Type Foundery (sic) 1883/1885 (historians disagree) until 1892; thereafter, of American Type Founders’ Company Boston Branch until retirement in c1930.
  • Prang

    L. Prang and Company. Boston was the US “go-to” center of chromo-lithography since its introduction there in the 1830s. German immigrant Louis Prang, “father of the American Christmas card” (1874), inherited the spotlight in 1856. The masterful work of this world-famous lithographer/publisher/art educator drew top painters, poster and lettering artists to his establishment, which was conveniently located near both the Boston and Dickinson TFs. First issued in 1866 (perhaps earlier), Prang’s Book of Standard Alphabets was “a collection of alphabets in the best ancient and modern styles, designs for titles, colored initials, borders, compass & topographical signs, the state arms of the Union &c. especially adapted for the use of sign painters, engravers, illuminators, architects and civil engineers.”
  • pre-digital

    Drawn from a source that existed before "computer" fonts.
  • Quadrat

    A piece of type metal used for filling spaces.
  • Rogers

    John Kimball Rogers [1821–1888]. Except for the years between 1869/1870 (historians disagree) and 1871 (when he became the major stockholder), he was Agent of the Boston Type Foundry in 1851–1888. His brother, Daniel Webster Rogers [1826–1902], was the BTF Treasurer in c1846–1892; he retired when the firm was sold to American Type Founders' Company.
  • Saxe

    Stephen O. Saxe. A 20th/21st-century historian of letterpress equipment and types. Author/co-author of numerous important monologues and periodical features on these subjects.
  • scalable

    Scalable fonts are built from vector curves with native transparency [truly binomial, where 1="something" and 0="nothing"]. They may be scaled to any size without distortion. Furthermore, they automatically rotate to suit portrait vs landscape orientation.
  • Schraubstadter

    Carl Schraubstadter Sr. and sons of Boston, Central and Inland TFs.
  • Shepard

    Henry O. Shepard [1844–1903], founder and publisher of The Inland Printer, 1883–1903.
  • Simon G. Stein

    Simon G. Stein [1817–1892]. Banker, stockholder of Great Western TF (Barnhart Brothers & Spindler), father-in-law of Arthur M. Barnhart.
  • Solo

    Dan X. Solo [1928–2012], fondly called DXS. Beginning in 1942, he collected worldwide some 6,000 letterpress fonts and specimens. For the next five decades, he curated and converted about 5,000 of them to film for his photo-lettering service. Because of his extremely influential Dover publications, countless revival typefaces are known today by the tradenames he assigned to them.
  • St. John

    James A. St. John [Newfoundland 1841–Boston 1901]. Boston TF 1857–1869/1870/1871/ (historians disagree), when he established the BTF St. Louis Branch. Partnered with BTF Superintendent Carl Schraubstadter Sr. to purchase the branch in 1874; they named it Central TF. In 1888, they purchased BTF; St. John returned to Boston to manage it. In 1892, they sold both TFs to American Type Founders' Company.
  • stereotype

    A method for reproducing a entire tray of type composed as a page, thus freeing the type itself for other jobs. Developed in Europe during the 1700s, it was perfected in the US in the early the 1800s.
  • TF

    Type Foundry
  • The West

    California became a US State in 1850. Even so, during the period discussed, “the West” meant cities near the Great Lakes and northern Mississippi River: Chicago, St. Louis, Milwaukee, etc. Territories between there and the Pacific coast were very sparsely populated.
  • THP

    The Type Heritage Project
  • Typographical Association

    United States Typefounders' Association. An organization established in 1854 to regulate prices and to determine other industry-wide policies.
  • Typothetæ

    The United Typothetæ of America with chapters in major cities. An organization of master printers of the US and Canada, founded in 1865. A typeface named in honor of this organization was cut by John F. Cumming of the Dickinson TF in 1889; it became the caps for Skjald.
  • UK

    United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and until 1922, all of Ireland. Thereafter, Northern Ireland remained when the Irish Free State became an independent republic.
  • URL

    Uniform Resource Locator. The full path [link] to an entity of the Worldwide Web [WWW] or to one of such WWW-independent Internet systems as eMail and UseNet.
  • URL

    Universal Resource Locator ["link"]. The full path, beginning with http:// [Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol] that, when clicked, leads to a page intended by the author. Links are easily broken when a page is renamed or reorganized, a site is migrated to a new host server, updated from "sand-box" to "live" status, etc. Website developers appreciate notifications of broken links!
  • USPTO

    United States Patent and Trademark Office [since 1790]. Design patents issued since 1842; trademark department established by US Congress, 1870–1874. Thereafter, identification of type tradenames has been prohibited from the text of applications for design patents.
  • White

    New York, 1804–1909 White's Type Foundry (Elihu White and son Charles), 1804–1862
    • Chicago branch, 1855–1861. Sold to John Marder (Marder, Luse & Co.); joined ATF in 1892.
    • Cincinnati branch, 1817–1830. Continued independently as Cincinnati TF; joined ATF in 1892.
    • Boston branch, 1817–1819. Boston TF thereafter; joined ATF in 1892.
    Farmer, Little & Co. (Aaron D. Farmer and son William W., Andrew Little, John Bentley), 1862–1892.
    • Chicago branch, ≤1883–1907(?).
    A.D. Farmer Type Founding Company, 1892–1909. Plant sold to ATF in 1909.
  • WYSIWYG

    What You See is What You Get