Lindsay|Dauchy|Wood Type Chronology

 

Since it is impossible to isolate the inter-related and inter-dependent histories of the Lindsays, the Dauchys and the Connecticut1 wood-type industry without (crazy!) redundancy, they are combined here for big-picture comprehension. Shared addresses are set in bold type throughout.

Links to Lindsay, Keystone and Dauchy lead to detailed information about the Lindsay|A.W. Lindsay Type Foundries [TFs], the Keystone TF and the Dauchy & Co. Advertisement Agency. Those to Page, Bruce, Conner, Brehmer and Gnichwitz, to associated fonts revived and/or discussed byTHP Chapel forums.

This feature integrates independent research of diverse 19th-century literature with 20th-century monographs and professional papers and with more recent www publications by credible scholars. As always, historians contradict each other—and sometimes, even themselves!

Self-evident address, family and business connections lead to the conclusion that wood-type producer J.G. Cooley contracted the Lindsay TF to produce type from pirated designs for Dauchy & Co. and its predecessors, thereby triggering price wars that nearly destroyed the US metal type industry.

Symbol Key

≤ In or before the year or month cited.
≥ In or after the year or month cited.
± Sometime between the years or months cited.
c In approximately (circa) the year or month cited.
Digital revival produced by THP Partner.
#Other digital revival known at this writing.

Comprehensive Chronology

During the period investigated, there were three Robert Lindsays. (1) Robert-1, founder/managing partner of the Lindsay TF and two nephews: (2) Robert-2, son of James2 and officer of George Bruce’s Son & Co.;3 (3) Robert A., son of John and manager of Lindsay TF in 1902–1903.4
qwerty

  • 1851. James Lindsay is recruited by George Bruce, employed as TF superintendent. Brothers Robert-1, John and George may have traveled to the US with him.5
  • 1852. Brothers Robert-1, John6·7 and George8 Lindsay establish Lindsay TF. Cooley purchases the wood type factory of Edwin Allen in South Windam, CT.9
  • 1855, February. Cooley hires Page as a wood-type finisher. 10
  • c1856. Alexander W. Lindsay immigrates to US, joins brothers at LindsayTF.11
  • 1856–1859. Page purchases wood-type production equipment of H. & J. Bill (Willimantic, CT), establishes independent wood-type factory, moves it to Greeneville, CT. Partners with James Basset, then with Samuel Mowry as Page & Company.12

T.J. Lyons Collection
Courtesy of Dave Greer

  • 1859. Cooley partners with Robert Lindsay-1.13 They open a printers’ warehouse including wood and metal type at 1 Spruce Street (New York Tribune building)[/note].14·15
  • 1859, 01 October. Page issues first(?) specimen book. His type is illustrated in The Typographic Messenger newsletter issued by the Conner TF (New York), which distributes it.
  • c1863. Cooley moves his wood-type business from South Windham, CT to the New York Tribune building. It soon expands to three adjacent buildings plus a fourth across the street.16
  • 1864. Cooley-Lindsay partnership is dissolved.17·18
  • 1865. Cooley delegates responsibility for printers’ equipment sales to J.G. Cooley Jr.; continues pursuit of wood-type sales.19
  • c1866. Cooley hatches the plan of bartering type and printing equipment for newspaper advertising space.
  • 1867, 19 February.20Cooley partners with hardware merchant S.T. Dauchy as Cooley & Dauchy at 75 Fulton Street, New York.21·22
  • c1867. Two Lindsay TF catalogs are issued without imprint.23
  • ≤1868. Following service in the US Civil War, Setchell joins Cooley & Dauchy.24
  • 1868–1882. A.W. Lindsay is not listed in New York business nor residential directories.25 During this period, he is associated with a TF in London.26
  • 1868. Wood type becomes secondary to metal type “knock-offs” sold by Cooley & Dauchy.27
  • 1869, Summer. After a fire during the winter destroys Cooley & Dauchy offices, Cooley retires. Page purchases the wood type; Dauchy, the warehouse and advertising agency.28·29. Did Page and Dauchy become partners (see 1872 catalog)?
  • 1869. S.T. Dauchy partners with brother Burr Dauchy to establish Dauchy & Co. at the corner of Gold and Fulton Streets.30
  • ≤1870. A.W. Lindsay establishes a TF at 76 Park Place (see 1886).31
  • 1870. Two Lindsay TF catalogs are issued with conflicting imprints: “A.W. Lindsay Co.|76 Park Place” and “R. & J. and A.W. Lindsay, 75 Fulton Street.”32
  • 1870, 01 October. Wm. H. Page & Co. (Greeneville, CT) issues a catalog.33
  • c1872. Catalog, Specimens of Printing Types from the Typefoundry of R. & J. & A.W. Lindsay.34
  • 1872. Dauchy & Co. issues a complete catalog of Page’s types.35
  • 1872, 01 August. Wm. H. Page & Co. (Greeneville, CT) issues a catalog, Wood Type, Manufactured by Wm. H. Page & Co.; preface signed by William Hamilton Page and Samuel Mowry.
  • 1873. Dauchy & Co. publishes Dauchy & Co’s Popular List of Newspapers in the State of New York, …. Wm. H. Page & Co. (Greeneville CT) issues a catalog.36
  • 1873±1878. Dauchy & Co. relocates to 191 Fulton Street, corner of Church Street.37

Wm. H. Page & Co., 1874

  • 1874. Wm. H. Page & Co. (Greeneville CT) publishes Specimens of Chromatic Wood Type Borders. Typefounder named William Lindsay is listed at 65 Centre (Bronx?) by a New York business directory.38
  • 1876. Wm. H. Page & Co. issues catalog.39 Samuel Mowry retires; Page relocates from Greeneville to Norwich, reorganizes as William H. Page Wood Type Company.40
  • 1878, 01 April. Page publishes catalog entitled Dauchy & Co. Specimens of Wood Type Manufactured by the Wm. H. Page Wood Type Co. confirming new addresses. 41
  • 1878, 24 September. Setchell applies for patent of Method of Making Wood Borders, assigned to Wm. H. Page Wood Type Company (see 1881).
  • ≤1879. Robert Lindsay-2 joins or replaces his father, James Lindsay, at the Bruce TF.
  • 1879, 02 September. Bruce TF partner James Lindsay dies.42
  • 1879. Wm. H. Page Wood Type Company (Norwich, CT) issues Page‘s Wood Type Album.43
  • 1880. John Lindsay (age <60?) is no longer listed in New York business directories.44 Perhaps he retired (see 1890).
  • 1181, 25 January. Setchell’s application for patent of Method of Making Wood Borders is approved [USPTO 237054].
  • 1881. Burr Dauchy retires from Dauchy & Co., purchases controlling interest of Lindsay TF45 at 75 Fulton Street; George Lindsay is appointed Manager.46 Setchell becomes Partner/President, William H. Page & Co.47
  • c1882. A.W. Lindsay returns to New York? (see ≤1872).48

No. 515: William H. Page, c1890. Patent for Die-Cut Process: George C. Setchell, 1887. Image courtesy of Unicorn Graphics.

  • 1882. Wm. H. Page Wood Type Company (108–116 Franklin Street•Norwich, CT) issues catalog.49
  • 1885. Robert A. Lindsay is employed by Lindsay TF.50
  • 1886, <August. A.W. Lindsay TF listing in The Inland Printer Business Directory: 76 Park Place.
  • 1887, 19 March–20 December. Setchell patents Die for Making Wood Type and Method of Producing the Same, unassigned.
  • 1887, May–December. Page patents Method of Producing Dies for Use in Making Wood Type [USPTO 374993].
  • 1887. Page begins discussions with Hamilton & Baker (Two Rivers, WI) about acquisition of the William H. Page Wood Type Co. 51

The Inland Printer Business Directory, October 1887

By the mid-1890s, Dauchy & Co.’s Newspaper Catalog claimed long-established full creative services.55 Perhaps this explains why Lindsay TF decided to produce some “new” typefaces:

almahkatherinec1888. German immigrant Henry Brehmer designs the first of at least a dozen documented Lindsay typefaces.56 Although far from original, two were patented with assignment to Burr Dauchy:

Almah∗ [top], 1890 [USPTO D20192].
Katherine/Elizabeth,∗ 1889 [USPTO D20690].
qwerty
Almah∗ is a “naked knock-off” of the spectacularly fine-hatched Crayon∗ [left], which was designed and cut in ≤1885 and patented in February 1886 by Herman Ihlenburg with assignment to MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan [MSJ] (Philadelphia). Johnston and Saxe write that it was also distributed by Keystone TF (Philadelphia),57 which flaunted it as Crayonette∗.

Like the Lindsay|Dauchy allianceKeystone TF was owned by the N.W. Ayer & Son Advertising Agency (1869), which also owned the Mather Manufacturing Co., a printers’ supply business (1884),58 and bartered for newspaper space with type cast from pirated designs.59 Thanks to investments raised by Rudolph Gnichwitz,60 they branched into type production in 1888 with Gnichwitz as manager.

Gnichwitz had been superintendent of MSJ’s mechanical department from 1868 until early 1888.61 In November 1890, he applied for a design patent application of Crayonette Open∗ [USPTO D20417], an outline version intended for use with Crayonette∗ in chromatic separations. This face is clearly a derivative of an already patented derivative of a brilliant patented original. Even so, the affidavit brazenly claims original invention.62 Rights were assigned to the Mather Manufacturing Co.

In 1906, Bullen connected the dots:

“[Keystone TF’s] policy was to make type to exchange for advertising space. The type-faces of MacKellar, Smiths &
Jordan were appropriated, and it is only in recent years that this foundry has originated any styles of its own.”63

Katherine/Elizabeth.∗ The Lindsay TF advertised caps-only Katherine in the Inland Printer of May 1889. In the October edition, Barnhart Brothers & Spindler [BBS] proclaimed a dual-case version, Elizabeth. Both ads display identical “patent pending” notices citing Lindsay.

Katherine∗ was reviewed by The American Bookmaker of May1889.64 The columnist remarks, “Few established offices will see an advantage in possessing this series, as their place is already filled, and they serve simply as duplications of other and longer made kinds.”

Bullen’s 20/20 eye-witness hindsight recalls in 1906:

“Barnhart brothers were newspaper publishers in Iowa, after which they became advertising agents in Chicago.
They first handled type as a substitute for cash in payment for advertising.”65

Annenberg’s account adds that in 1868, Warren Barnhart moved from Independence, IA to Chicago and opened an advertising agency:

“During that period the sale of type was the medium of
exchange between advertising agencies and newspapers.66·67

Even so, Brehmer’s application for design patent of Elizabeth∗, finally submitted in March 1891 (nearly two years after publication of “pending” notices), was (promptly and mysteriously!) approved the following month.

  • 1889, 07 May. Page‘s application for patent of Die for Forming Wooden Type is approved [USPTO 402852] (see 1888).
  • 1889. Setchell sells shares of William H. Page Wood Type Co. to S.T. Dauchy.68
  • 1890, September 10. Robert Lindsay witnesses Brehmer’s patent affidavit for Almah=Crayonette.
  • 1890. Wm. H. Page Wood Type Company (108–116 Franklin Street•Norwich, CT) issues catalog of end-cut types.69 Officers of William H. Page Wood Type Co.: S.T. Dauchy, President; Page, Treasurer.70 D.W. Bruce retires; designates V.B. Munson, H.M. Hall71 and Robert Lindsay-2 as successors.72 Lindsay TF catalog is imprinted “Lindsay Type Foundry and Robert Lindsay & Co.”73 Had John Lindsay died (see 1880)?
  • <1891. Dauchy & Co. services include full creative development and electrotyping of finished ads for placement in periodicals.74

The Inland Printer, July 1890
(Click for more information)

Jell-O Girl, 1904

For the Record…

A.W. Lindsay address near Dauchy & Co.
Separated by a decade or so.
May be significant anyway.
NY Tribune coincidence?

GoudyLeaf-LeftRelated Pages

Lindsay|Dauchy|Wood-Type Connections
Obituary, William H. Page

Dauchy & Co.
Lindsay Type Foundries
Design Piracy
Pre-ATF Price Wars

Footnotes

  1. Connecticut [CT] is a US state located southeast of the City of New York. Locations of referenced wood type factories were convenient to the Lindsay and Dauchy offices in the New York financial district.
  2. Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:8, 1980.
  3. Annenberg , M.; Saxe , S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  4. Note and Comment In The Typographical Journal 22:129, February 1903.
  5. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  6. De Vinne, T.L. (1899-1902): The Practice Of Typography|A Treatise on the Processes of Type-making, the Point System, the Names, Sizes, Styles and Prices of Plain Printing Types (Second Edition), page 105. The Century Co., New York.
  7. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  8. Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.
  9. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, pages 39 and 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  10. Loy, W.E. (1898–1900): Designers and Engravers of Type. In <ahref=”http://forums.typeheritage.com/topic/inland-printer/”>The Inland Printer</a> 22:259, February1899.
  11. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O.[Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press,New Castle, DE.
  12. Loy, W.E. (1898–1900): Designers and Engravers of Type. In <ahref=”http://forums.typeheritage.com/topic/inland-printer/”>The Inland Printer</a> 22:579, February 1899.
  13. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./VanNostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
  14. Saxe, S.O.(1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History2:14–15
  15. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  16. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
  17. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
  18. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  19. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
  20. Personal. In Dauchy & Company’s Newspaper Catalogue, January 1897.
  21. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
  22. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  23. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, pages 176 and 252. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  24. Shields, D.: George Case Setchell. In Wood Type Research, December 2014.
  25. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
  26. Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879.
  27. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 129. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  28. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
  29. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  30. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
  31. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  32. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman,E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle,DE.
  33. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 338. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  34. Catalogue of the Books in the Library of the Typothetæ of the City of New York, page 81. Typothetæ at the De Vinne Press, 1896. Note that De Vinne’s account that A.W. Lindsay was an original partner of the Lindsay TF is inaccurate.
  35. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 64. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  36. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 338. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  37. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
  38. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
  39. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 338. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  40. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 44. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.).
  41. Image courtesy of The Wood Type Museum.
  42. Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879.
  43. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 338. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  44. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
  45. Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York.
  46. Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.
  47. Shields, D.: George Case Setchell. In Wood Type Research, December 2014.
  48. Saxe, S.O. (1980):The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
  49. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 338. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  50. Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903.
  51. Shields, D.: George Case Setchell. In Wood Type Research, December 2014.
  52. The Citizen Banner (Wakefield MA), 21 April 1887.
  53. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
  54. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 339. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  55. Ourselves. In Dauchy & Co.’s Newspaper Catalog, 1894–1895 Edition ©1891.
  56. Loy, W.E.: Designers and Engravers of Type. In The Inland Printer 24:243, November 1899.
  57. Johnston, A.M.; Saxe, S.O. (Editors): William E. Loy |Nineteenth-Century American Designers and Engravers of Type, page 117. Oak Knoll Books (New Castle, DE).
  58. Annenberg , M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, pages 167–171. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  59. Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 8:357, December 1906.
  60. Correspondence•Philadelphia. In The American Bookmaker 6:68, March 1888.
  61. Correspondence•Philadelphia. In The American Stationer 23:311, 18 February 1888
  62. All patents, including design patents, are awarded only to Inventors or to Inventors of Record (who acquire the intellectual property from someone else). The usual legal language for a non-designer is “invented and produced,” meaning that the applicant invested in materializing the other person’s idea.
  63. Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 8:357, December 1906.
  64. New Faces of Type|Critically Described and Considered. In The American Bookmaker 8:121, May 1889.
  65. Bullen , H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 8:354, December 1906.
  66. Annenberg , M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, pages 56–61. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE
  67. From 1878 until his death in 1897, BBS employed C.E. Heyer, who designed about half of the original faces introduced during its 61-year history.
  68. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 44. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
  69. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 339. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  70. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 44. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  71. Munson had witnessed multiple applications for design patents since February 1872 [USPTO D5514]; Hall, since April [USPTO D5814]. There is no record of Robert Lindsay-2 doing so.
  72. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  73. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  74. Ourselves. In Dauchy & Co.’s Newspaper Catalog, 1894–1895 Edition ©1891.
  75. The Inland Printer 07:835/848, July 1890.
  76. Bullen, H.L. (1934): Duplicates of the Specimen Books, etc., United States and Foreign, for sale by the Typographic Library and Museum of the American Typefounders Company, page 27. Frontier Publishing Co., San Diego 1972.
  77. New York Disaster. In The Deseret Weekly 43:306–308, August 29, 1891.
  78. Business Directory. In The Inland Printer 9:158, November 1891.
  79. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 44. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  80. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 44. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
  81. The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.
  82. American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892.
  83. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 252. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  84. The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1895:15, Press Publishing Company (The New York World).
  85. Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903.
  86. The Inland Printer 15:61-62, April 1895.
  87. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  88. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
  89. Catalogue of the Books in the Library of the Typothetae of the City of New York, page 81. Typothetae at the DeVinne Press, 1896.
  90. Polk’s (Trow’s) New York Copartnership and Corporation Directory, Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx 50:298, March 1902.
  91. Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.
  92. Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903.
  93. The New York Times | October 22, 1909.
  94. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
  95. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle DE.
  96. Renamed Jell-O Company in 1923; in 1925, Jell-O merged with Postum Cereal, Inc., which later become General Foods Corporation. Today Jell-O is owned and manufactured by Kraft/General Foods.
  97. Death of S.T. Dauchy. In Printers’ Ink 52:27, September 1905.
  98. Obituary, William H. Page. In The Inland Printer, 37:575, July 1906.
  99. Obituaries. In The New York Times, 22 October 1909.
  100. Art Directors’ Awards. In Bulletin of the Art Center, New York 1:62, November 1922.