Lindsay Type Foundries

 

This feature is public because it is indexed by search engines and frequently visited. With apologies in case you are inconvenienced, it is in the process of consolidating duplicate information transferred from closely related pages:

Dauchy & Co. (original feature, too much information—reorganization in progress!)
Lindsay|Dauchy|Wood-Type Connections (final draft, available—read this instead of the chronology below)
Design Piracy (available)
Pre-ATF Price Wars (final draft, available)

This account of the Lindsay and A.W. Lindsay Type Foundries [TFs] compiles independent research of the 19th-century literature with 20th-century monographs and professional papers. Links to Lindsay lead to associated fonts discussed by THP Chapel forums.

Symbol Key

In or before the year or month cited.
≥ In or after the year or month cited.
± Sometime between the years or months cited.
c In approximately (circa) the year or month cited.
Digital revival produced by THP Chapel member.

The history of the Lindsay TF (1852–1903) is inextricably inter-related with that of the Dauchy & Co. Advertisement Agency (1867–c1930). For as long as eleven years (1867 until 1873±1878), the two businesses shared the same address: 75 Fulton Street (corner of Gold Street, New York financial district [set in bold type throughout]), permanent location of the Lindsay TF. In turn, Dauchy’s evolution involves Connecticut wood-type producers starting in 1855 with the association between John G. Cooley and William H. Page.

Besides the “Small-World” addresses, self-evident family and business connections lead to the conclusion that Cooley contracted the Lindsay TF to produce type from pirated designs for Dauchy & Co. and its predecessors, thereby triggering price wars that nearly destroyed the US metal type industry.

Historical Context

Electrotyping. Invented in Russia by German Moritz von Jacobi in 1838, this technology enabled quick, easy and inexpensive reproduction of metal fonts purchased from a competitor.

For the first time in history, type founders world-wide
were threatened by design piracy—urgently!

In 1845, Thomas Starr patented Improvement in Preparing Matrices for Type by the Electrotyping Process [USPTO 4130]. In his chapter on Typefounding, Kelly explains that this invention enabled small TFs to quickly and easily build comprehensive inventories—cheaply!1Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.) In his capacity as ATF Librarian/Historian, Bullen noted on the index card for Starr’s patent:

“Appears to be the beginning of the use of electrotype matrices,
an invention of great importance to the PIRATES of type faces,
otherwise a great calamity to the type making industry.”2Quoted in Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 205. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).

Advertising Agents. Unlike today’s counterparts, early agencies contributed nothing creative. Their primary service was merely to purchase newspaper space for resale at a profit. In 1867, wood-type producer J.G. Cooley (Cooley & Dauchy Printers’ Warehouse and Advertising Agency, New York) introduced an ingenious business plan. Surely, he never dreamed that the “fallout” of his idea would threaten the entire US type industry.

Instead of paying for newspaper space in cash, Cooley & Dauchy bartered their merchandise:3Printers’ Ink|A Journal for Advertisers 17:8, October 1896. equipment, wood type (briefly) and electrotyped metal fonts inexpensively produced from pirated designs by the Lindsay TF.4Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:680, August 1907. Kelly writes, “Cooley & Dauchy exploited the new field of advertising, and by … 1868, wood type was only a minor branch of their activities.”5Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 129. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)

Cooley’s scheme spread rapidly throughout the advertising industry. Annenberg writes that it was already in use by Pettengill (Boston, New York and Philadelphia) in 1869, when the N.W. Ayer & Son agency (Philadelphia, forerunner of Keystone TF) was established—one of their sources was New England TF (Boston).6Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 168. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.

Kelly observes that legitimate US TFs were “hardest hit by the [electrotype] process during the 1870s, when they engaged in an all-out struggle with a new, but burgeoning, advertising business. … Sometimes the agencies actually opened captive type foundries, but more frequently they operated side-street shops.”7Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).

Newspapers liked this system because, while the inferior type quickly wore out, it was replaced virtually on demand at zero cost.8Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 168. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. Traditional TFs despised the advertising industry for stealing the newspaper market, their most important income. They could not compete against cheap copies of their own designs, which had cost BIG BUCKS9According to Kelly (page 207): “Making a set of punches would take a skilled cutter up to one year—especially with an ornamental type. … The cost to the founder for even a simple Roman was not less than $1,200 [about $35,000 in 2015 vs 1840], and an ornamental design would cost in the neighborhood of $1,600 [about $45,000 in 2015 vs 1840] to produce.” Dollar-value conversions are the latest available from the US Consumer Price Index at this writing (2017). to develop and produce.

Price Wars. Since direct competition against ad agencies was hopeless, US TFs were plunged into competition against each other—to the brink of disaster. As reported by Bullen 10Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:514, July 1907. and Kelly,11Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, pages 92, 108, 205, 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977). financially devastating price wars, which had flared since perfection of the electrotype process of pirating type designs during the 1840s, escalated during the 1870s and peaked during the 1880s.

Besides piracy and price wars, they faced lithography, Linotype and a mandate to standardize production according to the point/pica system. For self-preservation, 23 of them united as American Type Founders’ Company in February 1892.12The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.·13American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892.

Fast-Forward Overview

Lindsay Type Foundry

World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1895
(click to view full-page ad)

Annenberg writes, “The original partnership operated under the name of Lindsay Type Foundry [TF] then later as Robert Lindsay & Co. … Their catalogs, the only vestige of their existence, are of various collations, typographical errors; and most books are undated.”14Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle DE.

  • Lindsay TF is established in 1852 by brothers Robert, John15DeVinne, T.L. (1899-1902): The Practice Of Typography|A Treatise on the Processes of Type-making, the Point System, the Names, Sizes, Styles and Prices of Plain Printing Types (Second Edition), page 105. The Century Co., New York.·16Annenberg , M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. and George17Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902. Lindsay.
  • In c1856, Alexander W. Lindsay joins his brothers at Lindsay TF. By 1870, he débutes the A.W. Lindsay TF; joined American Type Founders’ Company [ATF] in 1892.18The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.·19American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892.
  • Lindsay TF is acquired by Burr Dauchy in 1881.20Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York.
  • Lindsay TF joins ATF in c1903,21Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. after Dauchy retired.22Obituaries, in The New York Times 22 October 1909.

Divider
In 1867, the fore-runner of Dauchy & Co. originated the scheme of paying for newspaper space with printing equipment, wood and inferior metal type produced quickly, easily and cheaply by electrotyping competitors’ popular designs23Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:680, August 1907. (more below). Self-evident family, location and business connections indicate that the Lindsay brothers produced electrotypes for the Dauchy brothers:

The proprietors are constantly making new and elegant fonts of type suitable

 for the finest work, which are offered to customers at extremely low prices.24Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York.

Kelly writes that traditional US TFs were “hardest hit by the [electrotype] process during the 1870s, when they engaged in an all-out struggle with a new, but burgeoning, advertising business.”25Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977) By the 1880s, hopeless competition against copies of their own designs precipitated price wars among US TFs that threatened industry-wide collapse.
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Lindsay Type Foundry

Dauchy & Co.’s Newspaper Catalog, 1897
(click to view full-page ad)

The Lindsay Brothers

Lindsay Type Foundry

Ancient Tartan,
Lindsay Clan

De Vinne26De Vinne, T.L. (1899-1902): The Practice Of Typography|A Treatise on the Processes of Type-making, the Point System, the Names, Sizes, Styles and Prices of Plain Printing Types (Second Edition), page 105. The Century Co., New York. and later historians relying on his research account for only four Lindsay brothers: James, Robert, John and Alexander W. Without naming them, Loy writes that there were five.27Loy, W.E.: Typefounders and Typefounding In America. In The Inland Printer 26:981, March 1901.  All concur that they were born in Scotland, that their father was superintendent of the Glasgow|Wilson Letter Foundry (Edinburgh 1742–1845, Marr thereafter28Gray, N. (1938): XIXth Century Ornamented Types and Title Pages, page 139. Faber and Faber Limited, London.) and that they were expert typefounders.

THP has identified George Lindsay as the fifth brother,29Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902. verified William Lindsay as a sixth brother as speculated by Saxe30Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15, 1980. and distinguished two nephews of the first Robert Lindsay, their namesake: Robert Lindsay, son of James31Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:8, 1980. and Robert A. Lindsay, son of John.32Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903,

Robert-1, John and perhaps George immigrated to the US by 1852, possibly on the same ship with James; if so, the year was 1851. Alexander followed in c1856;33Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.·34Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. no immigration information about George and William is available.

1) James Lindsay [Glasgow 1826–Brooklyn 1879], the best-documented brother, was recruited in 1851 by George Bruce [1771-1866] as superintendent of Bruce’s New York Type Foundry. After Mr. Bruce’s death, he partnered with David Wolfe Bruce [1824–1895] as George Bruce’s Son & Co.35Pasko, W.W. (1894): American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking|A History of These Arts in Europe and America, with Definitions of Technical Terms and Biographical Sketches, page 340. Howard Lockwood & Co., New York.·36Loy, W.E.: Typefounders and Typefounding In America. In The Inland Printer 26:981, March 1901. His obituary answers (and raises!) some perplexing questions about his relatives.37Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879. His first three brothers are documented as Lindsay TF officers in 1852:

Lindsay Type Foundry

“Suffer Bravely”
International Crest,
Lindsay Clan

2) Robert Lindsay-1 [1820s?—uncertain]. Managing partner, Lindsay TF, 1852–≥1881; Cooley & Lindsay, 1859–1864. Apparently retired or died ≥1881, when Burr Dauchy acquired Lindsay TF and brother George replaced him. In 1859–1864, he partnered with wood type producer John G. Cooley,38Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977). who later originated Dauchy & Co. with his scheme of bartering printing equipment and type for newspaper advertising space.39The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.·40Bullen , H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:680, August 1907. Thereafter, he was consistently associated with the Lindsay TF.

During the period investigated, there were three Robert Lindsays. (1) Robert-1 (the man described above) and two nephews: Robert-2, son of James;41Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:8, 1980. and officer of George Bruce’s Son & Co.;42Annenberg , M.; Saxe , S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. and Robert A., son of John and manager of Lindsay TF in 1902–1903.43Note and Comment In The Typographical Journal 22:129, February 1903.

3) John Lindsay [1820s? 1880±≤1903]. Historians likewise agree that this Mr. Lindsay was an original partner, 1852–c1880. Retired or died 1880±1890; referred to as “the late John Lindsay” in 1903.44Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal 22:129, February 1903. Little else is known about him.

4) George Lindsay [1829–Brooklyn, 1902]. According to his obituary, “with his brothers [Robert-1 and John] half a century ago, [he] established the type foundry that is owned by Burr Dauchy” and adds that he had been “manager of the place” since 1881 (when Dauchy acquired controlling interest).45Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.·46Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York He served in this capacity until his death in December 1902. The following year, his nephew Robert A. Lindsay became manager, Dauchy retired, his son replaced him and Lindsay TF joined ATF. Oddly enough, he is not mentioned in his brother James’s obituary (September 1879).

Lindsay Type Foundry

“Suffer Bravely”
Scottish Crest,
Lindsay Clan

5) Alexander W. Lindsay [Early 1820s? (older than Robert-1, John47Annenberg, M.; Saxe , S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. and perhaps George)—unknown]. This Mr. Lindsay immigrated to the US in c1856 and joined his brothers at Lindsay TF. Not listed in New York business nor residential directories, 1868–1882.48Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15, 1980.According to James Lindsay‘s obituary (1879), “a fourth brother, Alexander, is in the [typefounding] business in London.”49Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879. Even so, De Vinne lists a Lindsay TF catalog imprinted “R. & J. and A.W. Lindsay” dated c1872.50Catalogue of the Books in the Library of the Typothetae of the City of New York, page 81. Typothetae at the DeVinne Press, 1896. In or before 1870, he established the A.W. Lindsay TF at 76 Park Place.51Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.·52Annenberg , M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE. Joined ATF in 1892.53The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.·54American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892. In 1890, he disputed rumors that his business had failed.55The Inland Printer 07:835/848, July 1890. When a freak accident56New York Disaster. In The Deseret Weekly 43:306–308, August 29, 1891 destroyed his Park Place location and adjacent buildings in 1891, he relocated at 82–84 Beekman Street;57Business Directory. In The Inland Printer 9:158, November 1891. and in 1895 (after joining ATF), at 91 Cliff Street.58Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15, 1980.

6) William Lindsay [????]. Saxe accounts that a New York business directory dated 1874 lists a typefounder by this name at 65 Centre (Bronx?).59Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15, 1980. The address does not correspond to known locations of Lindsay TF, A.W. Lindsay TF nor of Dauchy & Co. Since the Lindsay TF was established in 1852, the date 1874 suggests that he may have been significantly younger than the brothers documented elsewhere and was probably not an original partner of the firm. Unaware of George Lindsay, Saxe speculates that William may have been a fifth brother: “Nothing is known about William Lindsay, and his name cannot be found in the city directory.”His hunch is validated by James Lindsay’s obituary,60Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879. which mentions him as a surviving brother. Perhaps this information is inaccurate? Perhaps he was his nephew?

The Next Lindsay Generation

These men were cousins, both nephews of Robert-1:

  • Robert Lindsay-2 [unknown—c189561Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.]. Son of James Lindsay,62Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:8, 1980. who had been superintendent of the Bruce TF since he was recruited from Scotland by George Bruce in 1851.63Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879. Annenberg writes that this Mr. Lindsay was a long-time employee of the Bruce TF in 1890, when D.W. Bruce retired and “[disposed] of his stock and the good-will to three long-time employees: Harry M. Hall, Vilinder B. Munson, and Robert Lindsay. … He [Bruce] died in [March] 1895. Robert Lindsay died shortly afterwards”64Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
  • Robert A. Lindsay [????–>1903]. Son of John Lindsay and manager of Lindsay TF after George’s death in 1902.65Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903. The obituary of George Lindsay reports: “his nephew, Robert Lindsay, … found his body on the floor [of the hall at Lindsay TF].”66Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902. In an addendum to an earlier obituary of G. Lindsay (December 1902), the International Typographical Union of North America published in February 1903: “This foundry will continue under the management of Robert A. Lindsay, son of the late John and nephew of Robert Lindsay, who has been employed in the foundry for the last eighteen years [since 1885], and has been in charge of the manufacturing department for the last eight years [since 1895].”67Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903.

Even More about Lindsay Family Mysteries

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chronology

After 1859, history of the Lindsay TF is inextricably inter-related with that of the Dauchy & Co. Advertisement Agency.

GoudyLeaf-LeftRelated Pages

Lindsay|Dauchy|Wood-Type Connections
Forum Topic
Dauchy & Co.
Pre-ATF Price Wars

 

 

 

 

 

   [ + ]

1. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
2. Quoted in Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 205. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
3. Printers’ Ink|A Journal for Advertisers 17:8, October 1896.
4. Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:680, August 1907.
5. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 129. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977.)
6. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 168. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
7. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
8. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 168. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
9. According to Kelly (page 207): “Making a set of punches would take a skilled cutter up to one year—especially with an ornamental type. … The cost to the founder for even a simple Roman was not less than $1,200 [about $35,000 in 2015 vs 1840], and an ornamental design would cost in the neighborhood of $1,600 [about $45,000 in 2015 vs 1840] to produce.” Dollar-value conversions are the latest available from the US Consumer Price Index at this writing (2017).
10. Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:514, July 1907.
11. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, pages 92, 108, 205, 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
12. The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.
13. American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892.
14. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle DE.
15. DeVinne, T.L. (1899-1902): The Practice Of Typography|A Treatise on the Processes of Type-making, the Point System, the Names, Sizes, Styles and Prices of Plain Printing Types (Second Edition), page 105. The Century Co., New York.
16. Annenberg , M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
17. Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.
18. The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.
19. American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892.
20. Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York.
21. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
22. Obituaries, in The New York Times 22 October 1909.
23. Bullen, H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:680, August 1907.
24. Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York.
25. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 207. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977)
26. De Vinne, T.L. (1899-1902): The Practice Of Typography|A Treatise on the Processes of Type-making, the Point System, the Names, Sizes, Styles and Prices of Plain Printing Types (Second Edition), page 105. The Century Co., New York.
27. Loy, W.E.: Typefounders and Typefounding In America. In The Inland Printer 26:981, March 1901.
28. Gray, N. (1938): XIXth Century Ornamented Types and Title Pages, page 139. Faber and Faber Limited, London.
29. Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.
30. Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15, 1980.
31. Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:8, 1980.
32. Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal, 22:129, February 1903,
33. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
34. Annenberg, M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
35. Pasko, W.W. (1894): American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking|A History of These Arts in Europe and America, with Definitions of Technical Terms and Biographical Sketches, page 340. Howard Lockwood & Co., New York.
36. Loy, W.E.: Typefounders and Typefounding In America. In The Inland Printer 26:981, March 1901.
37. Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879.
38. Kelly, R.R. (1977): American Wood Type, 1828–1900|Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types, page 42. Litton Educational Publishing, Inc./Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (New York 1969). Reprinted by DaCapo Press, Inc. (New York 1977).
39. The General Advertising Agencies of N.Y. City. In Printers’ Ink 17:8, October 1896.
40. Bullen , H.L. [pen-name Quadrat] (1906-1908): Discursions of a Retired Printer. In The Inland Printer 39:680, August 1907.
41. Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:8, 1980.
42. Annenberg , M.; Saxe , S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 82. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
43. Note and Comment In The Typographical Journal 22:129, February 1903.
44. Note and Comment. In The Typographical Journal 22:129, February 1903.
45. Sudden Death of George Lindsay. In The New York Times, 04 December 1902.
46. Illustrated New York|The Metropolis of To-Day (1888), page 106. International Publishing Company, New York
47. Annenberg, M.; Saxe , S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 175. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
48. Saxe, S.O.: The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15, 1980.
49. Obituary, James Lindsay. In The New York Times, 03 September 1879.
50. Catalogue of the Books in the Library of the Typothetae of the City of New York, page 81. Typothetae at the DeVinne Press, 1896.
51. Saxe, S.O. (1980): The Type Founders of New York City, 1840–1900. In Printing History 2:14–15.
52. Annenberg , M.; Saxe, S.O. [Editor]; Lieberman, E.K. [Index] (1994): Type Foundries of America and Their Catalogs, page 176. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE.
53. The American Typefounders’ Company. In The American Bookmaker 15:127, October 1892.
54. American Typefounders’ Company. In The Inland Printer 10:150, November 1892.
55. The Inland Printer 07:835/848, July 1890.
56. New York Disaster. In The Deseret Weekly 43:306–308, August 29, 1891
57. Business Directory. In The Inland Printer 9:158, November 1891.
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