|August 14, 2014 at 12:11 AM #14723|
Julius Herriet Sr. [b Brunswisk, Germany 1818] (42 design patents/attributions): MacKellar Smiths & Jordan, Conner TF, Bruce TF, self-employed?). His son, Julius Herriet Jr., [b New York, 1861] (employed by father 18??–18?? and 18??–1886, Farmer TF, Boston TF 1886–c1891, Keystone TF) self-employed thereafter.
William Hamilton Page [1829–1906], extraordinarily innovative wood type designer and producer.
The Type Heritage Project
Boston Type Foundry. Established in 1817: Boston Type & Stereotype Co. 1823–1849; Boston Type Foundry 1849–1892. Purchased by Central TF in 1888, sold to ATF in 1892, closed in 1895.
William E. Loy [1841-1906], 19th-century US type historian and journalist. Author, Designers and Engravers of Type (The Inland Printer, 1898–1900) and Typefounders and Typefounding In America (The Inland Printer, 1900–1905).
Matrices (plural of matrix), also called strikes. The second step of metal type manufacture: the "master" struck from a punch to produce a mold for casting. Matrices were ideal for inter-foundry exchange within the US and abroad because they were independent of the final measurement system, which was determined by the mold.
Central Type Foundry. Established as the St. Louis branch of Boston TF sometime between 1870 and 1872 (historians disagree) by James A. St. John, former BTF Agent. In 1874, St. John partnered with BTF Superintendent Carl Schraubstadter Sr. to purchase it. Central TF was so successful that in 1888, they purchased Boston TF. When ATF was incorporated in February 1892, Boston and Central TFs were the only ones purchased for 100% cash; all others accepted shares as part of the agreement.
American Type Founders’ Company, 1892–1993.
Joseph Warren Phinney [1845-1934]. Principal executive, Dickinson Type Foundery 1883/1885 (historians disagree) until 1892; of the Boston Branch, American Type Founders’ Company 1892-c1930.
By the 1830s, differentiation between book- and job-font specialization was beginning to characterize type producers. While such French TFs as Molé and Didot offered conservative ornamented romans and scripts for title pages of academic, religious and literary volumes, many new entrepreneurs emerged and prospered as they fanned and fueled an ever-escalating worldwide demand for eye-catching display faces.
Independent Parisian Type Foundries Acquired by Tarbé
Since little history of this TF is available elsewhere on the www, Updike's account is summarized below:
See also Molé Foliate.
Fonderie Générale, 1834–1912
†This catalog is dated 1871 by Google Books.
†The surface of René's “signature typeface” is the same as William Thorowgood's Sans Surryphs Shaded# (1839).³ The shading angle is different, and a surrounding outline is added. No other specimen of this variation has been observed by THP.
*Date reckoned by THP per 1897 calendars offered for sale to TF clientele.
Fonderie Générale was acquired by the Peignot TF in 1912.
In the 1896 Beaudoire catalog, there are some striking “chicken ‘n' egg” comparisons with US faces. The source of the specimen is not (necessarily) the source of the design! Earlier ones illustrated in unavailable publications may have “inspired” imitations. Examples [US left, FG right]—click the thumbnails below for full specimens:
Babyloniennes. In his biography of Julius Herriet Jr. [b 1861], William E. Loy writes that this young man designed Samoa# for the Boston TF, where he was employed in 1886–c1891.⁴ It was reviewed in the June 1889 issue of The American Bookmaker, and additional sizes were reported in the August edition. His clever “upside-down sorts” strategy for setting alternate letterforms is not exhibited by the very similar French design.†
Pompeïnnes. This face, marked déposé [patent pending?], resembles Acantha#, which was patented by Linn B. Benton (father of Morris F. Benton) in July 1888–August 1890 [USPTO D20120]. Mr. Benton was a partner in the Benton Waldo TF (Milwaukee), which joined ATF in 1892. One wonders why his application (claiming invention) was considered for 25 months!
Couleé Italique Elzevirienne looks exactly like Touraine Old Style Italic, which was introduced in The Inland Printer of July 1898 noting that additional sizes were in preparation. The specimen text reads (in both languages), “modeled by Jean Goujon, a celebrated French artist” of the early 15th-century.‡
Application for an unassigned US design patent was submitted by Joseph W. Phinney, Inventor of Record, in August 1898 and approved in February 1899 [USPTO D30295]. The design was registered in England as of the 1900 ATF catalog. This evidence suggests that matrices of corresponding international sizes were purchased from FG.
†The specimen of Samoa# shown in the Boston|Central 1892 catalog (after joining ATF) displays a “beware of the [non-existent] dog” patent pending notice. Only BTF designs documented by THP were patented.
¹Updike, D.B. (1937): Printing Types|Their History, Forms and Use (Second Edition), pages 182–185. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
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