As usual, you nailed it. Your road-map to Central TF’s ad in The Inland Printer of April 1886¹ next led to Mullen‘s book on the TFs of St. Louis.
He dates it 1885 and adds that it was “the first Central face created to accommodate the American Point System,”² which was officially adopted by the Association of Typefounders of the United States the following year.
Neither Mullen nor Loy³ identifies the designer and/or punch-cutter. My hunch is that it was not the work of Gustav F. Schroeder, who had been recruited in Germany as a novice by Central partner Carl Schraubstadter Sr. in 1881.
This tricky-to-cut face is better attributed to a veteran pro like C.E. Heyer or W.W. Jackson, both commissioned by Central TF in 1881-1883.²
¹Annenberg, M. [Editor] (1977): A Typographic Journey Through The Inland Printer, page 103. Maran Press, Baltimore.
²Mullen, R.A. (2005): Recasting A Craft|St. Louis Typefounders Respond To Industrialization, pages 135–138. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
³Loy, W.E. (1898–1900): Designers and Engravers of Type. In The Inland Printer, December 1898.